Indus Civilization 2500 BC – 1500 BC
Ganges Civilization 1500 BC – 400 BC
Mauryas (Asoka) 322 BC – 320 AD
Shungas 185 BC – 30 BC
Satavahanas (Satavhana) 100 BC – 250 AD
The Satavahana (Stavhanas) Empire was an Indian dynasty based from
Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.
The Stavhanas were vassals to the Mauryan dynasty until the decline of the latter. They are known for their patronage of Hinduism. The Stavhanas were early issuers of Indian state coinage struck with images of their rulers. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India.
The Satavahanas are among the earliest Indian rulers to issue their own coins with portraits of their rulers, starting with king Gautamiputra Satakarni, a practice derived from that of the Western Kshatrapas he defeated, itself originating with the Indo-Greek kings to the northwest.
Thousands of lead, copper and potin Satavahana coins have been discovered in the Deccan region; a few gold and silver coins are also available. These coins do not feature uniform design or size, and suggest that multiple minting locations existed within the Satavahana territory, leading to regional differences in coinage.
The coin legends of the Satavahanas, in all areas and all periods, used a Prakrit dialect without exception. Some reverse coin legends are in Tamil, and Telugu languages.
Several coins carry titles or matronyms that were common to multiple rulers (e.g. Satavahana, Satakarni, and Pulumavi), so the number of rulers attested by coinage cannot be determined with certainty. The names of 16 to 20 rulers appear on the various coins. Some of these rulers appear to be local elites rather than the Satavahana monarchs.
The Satavahana coins give unique indications as to their chronology, language, and even facial features (curly hair, long ears and strong lips). They issued mainly lead and copper coins; their portrait-style silver coins were usually struck over coins of the Western Kshatrapa kings. The Satavahana coins also display various traditional symbols, such as elephants, lions, horses and chaityas (stupas), as well as the “Ujjain symbol”, a cross with four circles at the end.
There are more animals and mortals depicted on coins than Gods. Yet religion is the oldest culture in the world. Kushan kings of India were the first represent gods incuding Shiva and Buddha in their coins as early as 100 to 300 AD.
Religion and deities depicted on coins are construed by some pious people as effacing the value of their gods. Coins are a part of everyday life for everybody, and religious coins can also be a reminder to the presence of god in daily life. In a puritan’s sense the use of religious coins in monetary transactions could mean that god looks over honesty and integrity when his image is used.
The coins have their own caste system or status too, the poorest being cooper or aluminium or copper, silver for the gentry, and gold for the kings and the wealthy.
Since late 19th century there came a new forum to represent gods in daily life: the postage stamps. The expression of gods on stamps and coins also contributed to philatelic and numismatic art in daily life.
The trade and cultural ties to other countries of the world could be traced through the coins as old as 2000 years found in Sri Lanka. Among hoards of foreign coins found in the most unlikely places in the island such as Sigiriya, the site of the citadel of Kassayapa, the sleepy village of Kantharodai in Jaffna. Nearly 3000 Roman coins excavated nearthe Sīgiriya site suggest a Roman connection during early Christian era. Most of the coins found here belong to the period from Constantine the great (r. 306-337) to (Flavius) Honorius (reigned 393-423), which predate Kassapa (reigned ca 477-495) by nearly a century. The earliest Roman coin found in the region dates to about 317, nearly 150 years before Kassapa founded Sīgiriya. From the above evidence it is likely that Kassapa did not choose Sīgiriya by chance and it was already a hub of culture and trade. Some gold coins issued during the reign of King
Vijayabāhu currently exhibited at the British Museum, as well as in the Colombo Museum follow the types of Raja Raja Cholan when he was in possession of Pollonnaruva.
The relationship between the Tamils and the Sinhalese is also seen through the ancient coins in Sri Lanka. The The Mullaitivu coins (kahāpaṇas) as old as 200 BC arguably attributed to Eḷāra (Ellalan, bear a tree with branches (probably Sacred Bo Tree) on one face, and the bull (probably the Sacred Bull of the Hindus) suggesting that Eḷāra respected both religions. Mahāvaṃsa itself (XXI, 26) reveals the earliest date of kahāpaṇa (coins) in Lanka when Eḷāra spent 15,000 kahāpaṇas to repair a Buddhist stupa.
Known as Ceylon until it became a republic in 1972, the island had the most eye-catching colors of the Victorian Era in stamps.
Sri Lanka Post has a long history of 209 years, dating back to 1798, when the colonial Dutch rulers started five post offices in the Maritime Districts under their control. In 1799, they published the first postal regulations and postage rates. The Dutch East India Company operated the Postal service, which was not meant for the public but for official use.
The first postmaster by the British was appointed in 1802 and hand stamps were first supplied in 1813. The British took control of the whole island by conquering the Kandyan Kingdom in 1815 at the time of reign of King George III. Although horse drawn mail delivery commenced in Ceylon around 1832, the postage stamps were issued only on 1 April 1857.
The first Stamp features a portrait of Queen Victoria and is brown in color and of 6 pence value used to send a half ounce letter from Ceylon to England. Eight more stamps were issued in year 1857, all featuring the portrait of Queen Victoria. One of the 5 stamps that were issued on 23 April 1859 is considered to be the most valuable stamp in Sri Lanka: it is a 4 pence with a dark pink color known as the ‘Dull Rose.
A week after the First World War ended in 1918, Ceylon under King George V adopted war stamps when all postal rates were increased to defray war expenditure. The 2c, 3c, and 5 c were all overprinted “WAR STAMP” in two lines, and the 5 cent was also overprinted with an additional “ONE CENT” with a line struck through the original value. There are a number of varieties in the overprints, such as double and inverted overprints. Sri Lanka later is the only country to include details in a stamp in three languages viz. Sinhala, Tamil and English. The first stamps marked Sri Lanka were issued on 22 May 1972.
The first ever souvenir sheet of Sri Lanka was issued on 5 February 1966 on the topic ‘Typical Birds of Ceylon’. This sheet was reissued on 15 September 1967 to commemorate the 1st National Stamp Exhibition of Sri Lanka, overprinted ‘FIRST NATIONAL STAMP EXHIBITION 1967’.
At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were officially recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of regional and local chiefs including taluqars, zamindaris and jagirs. In 1947, princely states numbering 555 covered 48% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 28% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies:
Hyderabad, Mysore and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu & Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, and Indore in Central India. Gun-salutes were often given for personal distinctions of the ruler rather than the importance of the state and varied from time to time. The most prominent among those – roughly a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was honoured by receiving a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions, ranging from nine to 21. Rulers of salute states entitled to a gun salute of eleven guns and above received from the British the style of His/Her Highness; while the Nizam of Hyderabad had the unique style of His Exalted Highness.
The princely states varied greatly in status, size, and wealth; the premier 21-gun salute states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir were each over 200,000 km2 in size, or slightly larger than the whole of Great Britain. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million,, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of slightly over 4 million,
comparable to that of Switzerland. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2 with a population of just below 3,000. Some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2 (10 mi2). At the time of Indian independence in 1947, Hyderabad had annual revenues of over Rs. 9 crore (roughly £6.75 million/$27.2 million in 1947 values, approximately £240 million/$290 million in 2014 values), and its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway, postal system, currency, radio service and a major public university; the tiny state of Lawa had annual revenues of just Rs. 28,000 (£2100/$8463 in 1947 values, £73,360/$89,040 in 2014 values).[
The era of the princely states effectively ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950, almost all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan. The accession process was largely peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir (whose ruler opted for independence but decided to accede to India following an invasion by Pakistan-based forces), Hyderabad (whose ruler opted for total independence in 1947, followed a year later by the police action and annexation of the state by India), Junagadh (whose ruler acceded to Pakistan, but was annexed by India). and Kalat (whose ruler opted for independence in 1947, followed in 1948 by the state’s annexation
Throughout early history the nature has had more control over the course of mankind than man himself. The ancient civilisations on the banks or the regions of rivers, such as Indus and Ganges in India, Euphrates and Tigris in Mesopotamia, and the Nile in Egypt were destined by the state of water levels in the rivers, either too high or too low. Man could either prosper or perish at the mercy of the rivers. Among these, the Indus civilisation is one of the ancient of the river colonies dating back to about 2500 BC. The first invasion of the Indian continent was at Indus region by a set of nomadic people from the west whom we now call the Aryans. The people inhabiting the Indus before the arrival of the Aryans are termed pre-Aryans most of whom seem to have moved towards the south or elsewhere, although a small proportion such as Baluchistanis stayed back in the region. The culture of the pre-Aryans, inferred through their architecture, beliefs, seals indicate that they were possible the fore-fathers of the present Dravidians whose religion evolved through the millennia into the current form of Hinduism.
To many eminent scholars, the Dravidian culture encompassed almost the whole of India before the arrival of Aryans. In referring to the vast area of pre-Aryan Indus culture, the archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler (1890-1976) states: “…… thus by far is the largest unitary civilization of pre-classical times.” The proto-Hindu images similar to Lingam, Yōni and Pasupathi found in the Indus Valley supports the theory of a Hindu based Dravidian origin to the present Hinduism. The fact that Dravidian dialect (Tamil) is still spoken in the Indus region (Baluchistan), renders support to the proto-Dravidian theory before the immigration of Aryans to Indus. Recent Radio Carbon dating of the Indus artefacts estimates the life span of Indus civilisation to be from about 2400 BC to 1400 BC.
In contrast to the well documented Greek invasions of North-western India, we have no written records for the Aryan migration to the Indus region. However, we learn of the struggles and conflict between the original inhabitants of Indus and the invading Aryans through the Rig Veda, composed by the Aryans at the beginning of ca 1400 BC. The pre-Aryan Indus people, believed to be the proto-Dravidians, have left us with objects and undeciphered texts on their seals. The images on their seals, their sculptures, architecture and planned towns over a vast area of over 600 miles, have given us a fair idea of this highly advanced ancient race. The Aryans themselves refer to the ruins left by the Indus valley people as arma (ruined site) and make the following reference to their predecessors of the Indus Valley: “The people whom these ruined sites, lacking posts, formerly belonged, these many settlements widely distributed, they, O’Vaisnavara, having been expelled by thee, having migrated to another land.” In these words, here lies the clue to the destiny of the original pre-Aryan Indus people: they did not perish but simply moved on to new frontiers.
The earliest recorded history of India starts around 1400 BC, with the oral composition of Rig Veda, the sacred text of the Brahmins. Consisting of over a thousand hymns and more than ten thousand verses, composed over a few centuries, this collection became the ‘canon’ of the Vedic religion. These mystical hymns: the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sāma Veda and Atharva Veda were first put down in archaic Sanskrit writing only as late as the 12th century AD. Before this time these hymns were chanted methodically and accurately by the Brāhmīns through successive generations, without the need or intention to write them down. These incantations were regarded as the greatest possession of the Brahmins granting them the privilege, monopoly and hegemony over all other casts of Hindus. Writing the Vedas down not only would have been a sacrilege, but also be inviting lesser castes to their profession.
The culture left behind by the pre-Aryan people in the Indus valley, in many aspects, is cognate with the Dravidian culture. Objects resembling phallus and Yoni, seals bearing images of proto-Hindu god Pasupathi and images of mother goddess are some striking examples of a proto-Hindu culture left behind by the pre-Aryans in the Indus region. The English Indologist, Arthur Llewellyn Basham in his book The Wonder that was India (1954) states: “The modern South Indian is usually a blend of Mediterranean and Proto-Australoid, the two chief ethnic factors in the Harappa culture; more over the Harappa religion seems to show similarities with those elements of Hinduism which are specially popular in the Dravidian country. In the hills of Baluchistan, where people of the Nal and Zhob cultures built their little villages, the Brahui, though ethnically now predominantly Iranian, speak a Dravidian language.” In his chapter on The End of the Indus Cities, Basham states: “First to suffer (the Aryan invasion) were the Baluchistan villages…. When the end came it would seem that most of the citizens of Mohenjo- daro had fled.” Indologist, Father H. Heras (1953), one of the authorities on the Indus scripts, believes that the text on the Indus seals is a form of primitive Tamil, although his theory is disputed by other scholars.
The British archaeologist Sir Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895), who deciphered the cuneiform tablets of the Persians in 1849, gives us a glimpse of India in the 6th century BC, through the eyes of the Persians and Greeks. His younger brother, George Rawlinson (1812-1902), the Professor of Ancient History at the University of Oxford, in his commentaries on the history by Herodotus, says: “The Indians included within the empire of Darius were probably the inhabitants of Punjab, together with those of the lower valley of Indus.” The boundaries of India described by Herodotus is limited to the north by the Gandhārians (in upper Punjab and Kashmir): to the west by the Pactyans (in Afghanistan), Arachosians (in the present Kandahar) and Gedrosians (in Baluchistan): on the east by the Great Indian Desert (Deccan): and the south by the sea.” Herodotus does not seem have been much aware of the southern peninsular India that intervened between that part of India known to the Greeks, and the sea, the Indian Ocean. However, we can still find the first description of Dravidians in the work of Herodotus: “The tribes (of) Indians are numerous, and do not all speak the same language…. Eastwards of these Indians are another tribe called Pandaeans who are wanderers and live on raw flesh…. They all have the same tint of skin which approaches that of the Ethiopians…. Their country is a long way from Persia towards the south: nor had king Darius ever any authority over them.” As there is no historic record of any expedition into the peninsular south India by Persians or the others before the time of Herodotus (c 500 BC), it is likely that the Greek historian obtained his information on South Indians, through hearsay from travellers.
About the Indians (in the North West), Herodotus states: “They were warlike race in the time of Darius.” Through Herodotus we come to know that the Indians served in the Persian army, against the Greeks. It was not until the military expedition of Alexander the Great (reigned 336-323 BC) in 329 BC that the curtain came down between the East and the West. Megasthenes (350-290 BC) the Greek ambassador to the court of Emperor Candragupta during his stay at Pāṭalīputra (311 to 302 BC, wrote Ta Indika, which proved to be one of the earliest records of the Indian region by any westerner. Pāṭalīputra, known as Patna today, became the first imperial city of India with the establishment of Chandragupta’s Empire during the time of Megasthenes. The grandson of Candragupta, King Aśoka, later completed the conquest of the entire north India by subduing the adjacent Kāliṅga Kingdom, but the cruelty of war that he witnessed made him convert to Buddhism. However, Asoka could not as assert his military influence over the South, but he had more powerful weapon: religion, namely Buddhism.
Thus, Buddhism was born as a reactionary force to Hinduism which was underpinned by animal sacrifices and the monopoly of religion by the Brahmins. Buddha’s philosophy was never meant to become a religion, but only a way to eternal peace, Nirvana. Buddha never endorsed personal worship or imitation of his image. His early disciples complied with his directive by worshiping images of his foot prints or stupas until the Greeks arrived in the region. In Gandhara located in the present Pakistan arose the first representation of the Buddha in human form. This was the beginning of Buddhist art which spread to most eastern regions of the world. The adjacent Swat Valley, the land of romance and beauty, is celebrated as the holy land of Buddhist learning and piety. It is said that the Swat was filled with fourteen hundred imposing and beautiful stupas and monasteries, which housed as many as 6,000 gold images of the Buddhism for worship and education. This culture has left us with more than 400 Buddhist sites covering and area of 160 Km in Swat valley alone.
The earliest discovered statue at Gandhara is that of the seated Buddha from 2nd or 3rd century AD. Other Buddha images from this period too are of Greco-Roman style. They seem to have flourished during the adjacent Kushan reign of Mathura (Uttar Pradesh). Since then the schools of Gandhara and Mathura each independently evolved their own characteristic depiction of the Buddha from about the 1st century CE. The Gandhara school mostly drew from the traditions of Rome and Greece and represented the Buddha with a youthful Apollo face, dressed in royal garments. The ancient Gandharan artisans in their composition of Buddha’s images and his experiences have transformed the religion into Buddhist Art. The first depiction of Buddha on a gold coin was released by King Kanishka I in the first century during which time the first image of Shiva and Nandi too appeared on a gold coin.
Nearly a millennium later Tantrism brought mythology and mysticism to the religion. Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and “Secret Mantra”, which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia around the 7th century AD. In Tibet, Buddhist Tantra is termed Vajrayāna, while in China it is generally known as Tángmì, and in Japan it is known as Mikkyō. The new philosophy opened a vast scope to Buddhist art with each country adopting its own culture to Buddhism. A unique turn in the history of religions occurred in the 12th century with the fusion of the two religions in Khmer Empire during the reign of Jayavarman VII. He embraced Buddhism which coalesced with the pre-existing culture of Hinduism for a millennium. Vishnu and Buddha were seated in the same alter, guarded by the Naga, with goddess Uma too appearing as consort of Vishnu. The great temples of Khmer became the ultimate seat of art accommodating Hindu mythology such as Ramayana and heavenly dancers or Asparas, along with Buddha bringing the two oldest religions together without conflict. The fusion brought a whole new spectrum of Hindu-Buddhist art to the south east encompassing many countries including Burma, Thailand, Nepal, Vietnam and other regions of Indochina.
In the meantime, the parallel development of Hindu Art continued mostly in the Southern Peninsula of the Indian continent. The Pandyan dynasty was probably the most ancient of the Tamil dynasty, the other two being the Cholas and the Cheras. Pandyans excelled in Tamil literature and poetry along with performing arts. The Tamil Sangam was the legendary depository of literary works of the Tamil poets at Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula. Following a deluge, the Pandyans shifted their capital to Madurai. Strabo, the Greek philosopher and geographer (63 BC- 24 AD) vouches to the antiquity of the Pandyan king when he sent gifts to Augustus Caesar in Rome. We also see legacy of the Padyans in their ancient coins often depicting a fish in the pre-Christian era. The three dynasties of South India were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam and were known to King Asoka. Earlier to this time the Greek ambassador Megasthenes at the court of Chandragupta in the 3rd century BC had described the Pandyan kingdom as Pandyan Mediterranea and Modura Regia Pandionis.
Hindu art, architecture and sculpture reached its zenith during the Pallava period (275 CE to 897 AD) and Chola period (848-1279 AD). The gap in Hindu art and architecture from about early Christian era until this period could be partly explained by the rise of Buddhism through King Asoka’s efforts to promote Buddhism in South India. Buddhist monasteries prevailed over Hindu centres in the 5th century at Kanchipuram and adjacent regions. Buddhism started to recede later at the instance of Saivites and the last stand of Buddhism in South India was at Nagapattinam.
The history of Hindu art in India is as old as Indian civilisation itself before the Aryans. Present day Hinduism in India is an interactive product of the nature gods of the Aryans and native gods of Hinduism. The concept of mother goddess prevails strongly since the pre-Aryan times to the multiple forms of goddess such as Shakti, Parvati, Devi, Durga, Kali, Lakshmi and so on depicting the one and the same of female power in many forms. While on the other hand the male deities are mostly representative of male primordial power with female consorts. The Hindu philosophy surpasses most religious ideologies in making the female and male not only a power on their own, but an inseparable power as one and the same in the image of Ardharnishvara, a god who is both male and female. Although the iconic representation Ardharnishvara probably evolved in the 8th to 9th century AD, the concept power of genders itself was conveyed through Linga and Yoni as the primordial genders of procreation much earlier.
Hindu art was born of Hindu deities but propagated through native interpretation of their gods generating thousands of mythologies that empowered the gods by strengthening Hindu faith through fear of these gods. In contrast the compassionate side of the Hindu religion is seen in gods and goddesses such as Sarasvati who bestows prosperity and knowledge, Lakshmi who grants wealth, Vishnu who maintains harmony of the universe, Ganesh who removes obstacles and Durga who protects her devotees.
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Good company in a journey makes the way seem shorter. — Izaak Walton